What is Cropping System?
Definition: It is defined as the cropping pattern and its specific management over a period. It is location-specific.
- stability in production
- utilisation of resources
- higher returns
Types of Cropping Systems:
- Mixed System: It is the sowing of two or more crops without specific row differentiation in a field at the same time.
Example: Groundnut and sunflower together.
Advantage: it minimizes the risk of complete crop loss in case one crop is destroyed due to some reasons.
Disadvantage: crop operations become difficult.
- Intercropping: It is the sowing of two or more crops in a field with a specific row differentiation at the same time.
It has a few subtypes:
2.1 Parallel Intercropping: Sowing two or more crops parallel to each other. Example: Black Gram(A) + Wheat(B)
2.2 Companion Intercropping: Companion crops are those which do not compete with each other for moisture, space, or nutrients.
Example: Mustard/Potato/Maize(A) + Sugarcane(B)
2.3 Multilevel Intercropping: These are crops that occupy different spaces in terms of height.
Example Mustard(A)+ Sugarcane(B) + Potato(C)
2.4 Synergetic Intercropping: When the yield of both crops is more than pure crop. Example: Sugarcane(A) + Potato(B)
2.5 On basis of percentage of the crop:
- ADDITIVE: One Base crop + additive/inter crop
- REPLACEMENT: Component A + Component B
- Sequential System: The first crop is harvested before the second crop is sown. Example: Wheat-Rice system
- Relay Cropping System: The second crop is sown even before the first crop is harvested and so on. In this system, a part of the crop life cycle coincides with another crop. Example: Maize-Potato-Chilli System
Click here to know about the difference between Cropping and Farming System and other related concepts
Click here to know about Crop Rotation