Definition: It is the practice of growing different crops in different seasons on the same piece of land again and again.
- Profit maximization
- Investment minimization
- Fertility conservation
Principles to be followed:
- Tap fruit crop should be followed by fibrous root crop
- Non-legume followed by legume
- More exhaustive crop followed by less exhaustive crop
- can be easily sold
- erosion resistant for example legume
- One family followed by another family
- Timely agricultural operations
- Fertility maintenance
- Controlling insects and weed
- Utilization of resources
- better prices
It is the system of growing two or more crops in a single layer on a piece of land.
- More production per unit of land
- Risk minimization, profit maximization
Types of Multi Cropping:
- Mixed System: It is the sowing of two or more crops without specific row differentiation in a field at the same time.
Example: Groundnut and sunflower together.
Advantage: it minimizes the risk of complete crop loss in case one crop is destroyed due to some reasons.
Disadvantage: crop operations become difficult.
- Intercropping: It is the sowing of two or more crops in a field with a specific row differentiation at the same time.
It has a few subtypes:
2.1 Parallel Intercropping: Sowing two or more crops parallel to each other. Example: Black Gram(A) + Wheat(B)
2.2 Companion Intercropping: Companion crops are those which do not compete with each other for moisture, space, or nutrients.
Example: Mustard/Potato/Maize(A) + Sugarcane(B)
2.3 Multilevel Intercropping: These are crops that occupy different spaces in terms of height.
Example Mustard(A)+ Sugarcane(B) + Potato(C)
2.4 Synergetic Intercropping: When the yield of both crops is more than pure crop. Example: Sugarcane(A) + Potato(B)
2.5 On basis of percentage of the crop:
- ADDITIVE: One Base crop + additive/inter crop
- REPLACEMENT: Component A + Component B
- Sequential System: The first crop is harvested before the second crop is sown. Example: Wheat-Rice system
- Relay Cropping System: The second crop is sown even before the first crop is harvested and so on. In this system, a part of the crop life cycle coincides with another crop. Example: Maize-Potato-Chilli System
Principles of Multiple Intensive Cropping:
- Crops should be of short duration and photoperiod insensitive.
- Vegetables should be included as they are more profitable and nutritious.
- Allopathic effects should not be there.
- Legumes should be included.
Important points to be considered for Multiple Cropping:
- It should be agronomically suitable and technically feasible
- Compatibility between the crops should be there
- Selection of probes should be based on most profitability
- There should be assured irrigation facilities
- Essential inputs should be locally available
- Facilities for stable marketing and storage should be there
- There should be good transportation facilities
- There should be easy carrot availability
- Cheap labor availability
- Proper adjustment of sewing and harvesting time
|Additional income for unit area||Yield decrease due to competitive ability|
|Insurance against failure||Difficult task|
|Soil fertility maintenance||Implement use is very difficult|
|Decreased runoff and weed infestation||More use of fertilizers and water|
|Provide shade and support||Harvesting difficulty|
|More Cash crop is equal to more profit|
|More plants per unit area but less competition|
What is the Concept of Annidation?
It is the complementary interaction between the crops in which one helps the other.
Types of relation:
- soil layers
- Peak nutrient demand (PND)
For example, PND for Urad Mung is 30 to 35 days after sowing, but for the maze, it is 50 to 55 days after sowing.
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